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Französischer Geist im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert

Ernst Robert Curtius

Dieses Buch bei Amazon.de kaufen oder versuchen Sie Amazon.com in den U.S.A., Amazon.co.uk in England, Amazon.ca in Canada, Amazon.fr in Frankreich, Amazon.it in Italien, Amazon.es in Spanien. ASIN=3772013775, Category: Philosophy, Language: D, cover: HC, pages: 528, year: 1994(1952,.

1918 erstmals erschienen, stellt Curtius in diesem Buch die seiner Ansicht nach wichtigsten Wegbereiter des französischen Geistes vor: Gide, Rolland, Claudel, Suarès, Péguy, Proust, Valéry, Larbaud, Maritain, Bremond.

Dieses Buch ist eine ideale Ergänzung der Schriften Rudolf Steiners, der neben den Zusammenhängen zwischen Materie, menschlichem Bewusstsein, Freiheit, und Materie, ein Thema, das Curtius anhand der Schriften von André Gide vorstellt, auch erklärt, wo die Quellen der Moral sind, deren Kenntnis Jacques Maritain dem Henri Louis Bergson, abspricht. Steiner erklärt u.a. auch, warum es zu dem sogenannten "Fall"¹ kommen musste und wie der Mensch seine rein intuitiven Fähigkeiten entwickeln kann, die auch nach Meinung Maritains untrüglich sind:

Man könnte meinen, André Suarès hat neben der Genesis auch Friedrich Nietzsche gelesen - und verstanden.
Notes:
¹) "[T]he ancients conceived the Fall as something man ought to overcome. The post-scholastic period is still haunted by a belief in the Fall. But whereas an earlier, moralistic view of it held that man was born evil and must overcome his nature, the intellectualistic view holds that man cannot gain access to the supersensible with his mind or change his nature. Man's willingness to accept limits to knowledge is actually an inheritance from the Fall he suffered. In better days he at least tried to overcome error. But conceited modern man not only wants to retain his fallen status; he is actually intent on staying fallen and loving the devil, or at least trying to love him. That is the first of the two evils. The second is the weakness, the inner paralysis that afflicts modern human wills, despite their seeming activity, which is often nothing more than pretense. I must add that both these ominous characteristics of modern civilization and culture are qualities that anthroposophical life must overcome. If this anthroposophical life is to develop in a practical direction, everything it undertakes must be born of fearless knowledge and a really strong will."
-- quote Awakening to Community - I by Rudolf Steiner (GA 257, lecture in Stuttgart 13-Feb-1922)

"We must therefore conceive of this Fall as something that has been woven into human destiny for the sake of the freeing of mankind. We could never have become free beings had we not been thrust downwards; we should have been tied to the strings of a World Order which we should have been obliged to follow blindly. What we have to do is to work our own way upwards again."
-- quote The Concepts of Original Sin and Grace by Rudolf Steiner (GA 127, "Erbsünde und Gnade", lecture Munich, 03-May-1911)

"Original sin is brought about by man coming to the point of transferring to his offspring his own individual experiences in the physical world. Every time the sexes glow with passion the ingredients of the two sexes combine in the human being who is descending from the astral world. When a human being incarnates he comes down from the Devachanic world and forms his astral sphere in accordance with his particular individuality. Something of what belongs to the astral bodies of his parents - their impulses, passions and desires - combines with this astral sphere so that he thereby shares in the experiences of his forefathers. What descends through the generations in this way, what is actually acquired as human attribute through the generations and is handed down as such, is what we have to understand as the concept of original sin. And now we come to something else: an entirely new impetus entered humanity through the individualisation of man."
-- quote The Being of Man and His Future Evolution - ORIGINAL SIN by Rudolf Steiner (lecture 08-Dec-1908)

"Our sense perception is the first process to consider. This has become crude, purely external, materially defined and circumscribed. We no longer see the aura, that spiritual counterpart of the material world, not even in living things. In this connection we may cite the book of Genesis: "Their eyes were opened and they saw that they were naked." The human figure itself is only a focal point for the fact that as a result of The Fall we see all things naked, that is to say in material outline only. Deep in the human soul is a sense which will always respond to the suggestion that there is something wrong with us as a species, though we may regard ourselves as natural and normal human beings, that in fact our sense perception is more material than it need be."
-- quote The Risen Christ and the Etheric Christ, Lecture I, The Fall from Paradise and its Redemption by Christ by Alfred Heidenreich (lecture in USA, 22-Apr-1949)